The origin of the Egyptians: new evidence

This August of the year 2019 I have decided to go to France to recharge the intellectual batteries, since it is evident that beyond the Pyrenees you can find editorial jewels that are very difficult to obtain in Spain, since there is no market for it (lack of interest, shortage of translations ...). There I bought two books that for me have been a real revelation. On the one hand the version of the Egyptian Book of the Dead by R.O. Faulkner (Book of the Dead, British Museum Press, 2000), and on the other hand the Yvonne Bonnamy Hieroglyphs Dictionary (Dictionnaire des Hiéroglyphes, Actes Sud, 2013). Both books, unique in their kind, have allowed me to deepen in an aspect that, although I explored in detail in my work Ecos de la Atlántida, along with my partner Diego Méndez, I could not finish as I would have liked, due to lack of documentary evidence.

The fact of reading a dictionary thoroughly, entry to entry (and more when it has 1,000 pages), allows to obtain an approximate overview of a language. This is the case of the Hieroglyph Dictionary of Yvonne Bonnamy, the only one in French (there is one in English and two in German on the subject; there are no more). The version of the Book of the Dead by R.O. Faulkner, published by the British Museum, is the most refined and authorized among the multitude of versions that circulate around this text. Previously, I had analyzed the translation of A. Laurent, corrected with the hieroglyphic text of Wallis Budge.

In short, a rigorous analysis of both works has allowed me to go further in my analysis of the origins of the Egyptian civilization, which I already discussed extensively in Ecos de la Atlántida. My collaborator (and co-author) Diego Méndez summarizes the aforementioned book in the preface:

Throughout this formidable compilation, José Luis Espejo ingeniously persuades us of the echoes that emerge from the tradition revealed by the original sages. Among his bold conclusions, the author encourages us to consider that the mythical thinking of humanity is inscribed in heaven. The result of the investigation confirms that thousands of years ago ancient astronomers discovered that the polar star acted as a pivot around which the celestial vault revolved. But, far from being content with a descriptive vision of the Cosmos, these great observers of the sky reached a mastery that allowed them to locate the position and trajectory of the stars in the ecliptic, orienting themselves precisely in time and space. From the carousel of celestial objects in motion, they created a rich and varied worldview, integrated in some cases in the mythical corpus. The relative movement of the sun, the moon, the planets and the constellations must have inspired the mythological tales starring gods and goddesses of endless cultures of the ancient world. The departure and sunset of certain stars, which appeared and disappeared along the horizon line, marked the sacred calendar that regulated and balanced human activities. Solar astronomical events (equinoxes and solstices) were well known, as was the precession of the zodiacal ages during the annual terrestrial and equinoctial cycle. The numerous monuments built by the old builders show admirable knowledge in spatial orientation, as well as astronomy and architecture. It has been found that the swastika symbol, inspired by the constellation of Hercules (specifically, on the "knees of Hercules"), the figures depicted in the Dendera zodiac, the precise orientation of the Sphinx, the correlation of Orion in the rectilinear strokes of the Nazca pampa, and other vestiges included in the book, could serve as a material record of a cataclysm that occurred in very remote times. Surprising as it may seem, countless indications suggest that the wise men of ancient times recorded a great catastrophe after the end of the last ice age. Echoes of Atlantis provides the clues to reveal the secret knowledge that is hidden in the preserved remains of the Atlantean legacy and its mysterious origin.

Both in the previous book by José Luis Espejo, Los Hijos del Edén, and in the present, the author focuses on the keys that allow us to unravel what happened at the dawn of civilization. The Atlantean, geographical and temporal connection, reflected in this book, becomes an exciting journey towards the blurred protohistoric abyss in which the origin of human civilization is buried. To trace the trail left by our ancestors we must navigate the four cardinal points, disembark at the oldest sanctuaries in the world, immerse ourselves in the sacred texts of inveterate doctrines and clarify the signs that oral tradition deposited in the myth. To continue advancing, José Luis Espejo will help us decipher each of the pictograms, symbols and celestial markers discovered, whose decoding will guide us in the pleasant exploration journey proposed in the pages of this suggestive dissertation. At all times, the rudder of our ship will keep the course towards the mythical submerged continent, from which tradition, the primary civilization, must have proceeded.

This is basically the summary of the work, which I invite the reader to read carefully. Within this universal search for origins, I studied the founding myths of Egyptian, Sumerian, Hindu and Aztec civilization, among others. As regards of the first, I analyzed the texts of the Temple of Horus in Edfu, which tell us about a remote past in which a prosperous civilization was destroyed by war and a cataclysm, in a disturbingly similar way as it tells Plato in Timaeus and Critias:

These sources (texts by Edfu) tell us about a great Flood (the Nun Flood, the "primordial waters"), which happened in ancient times, and about the death of an evil race of Sethian beings (characterized by aquatic monsters: crocodiles and hippos). The flood of Nun is called by Penelope Wilson "the flood of primal water": "The flood of water nwy could evoke the first flood of the Nun that occurred, according to the texts." Interestingly, it is mentioned with the nickname nwy (Nuy), so similar to the Hebrew Noah (or Noah). This flood, or inundation, does not seem to be related to those caused annually by the Nile River (constantly mentioned in the Edfu texts), fertilizing the land and eliminating "impurities" (ie stagnant waters, generating diseases and pests). It is in this "primal flood" when "the Setian aquatic animals are destroyed" by a Horus armed with a harpoon, in Ra-Harakhty's boat, supported by his mother Hathor. Later, Professor Wilson says: "In cosmological texts nwy appears as analogous to the original Flood, that of Nun."

The primordial sea (the Nun) is also called Great Green, the "ocean that surrounds the world" (sn). Hence it was known as "the great circle" (which surrounds all continents). However, in those early times there was only one land to tell, an island that receives various names: "island of fire," or "island of the two flames." This mythical place, located in the East, which appears in the funerary literature of the Pyramid Texts, is connected to the myth of the creation of the world, being the place where the Sun (Horus) defeats its enemies (Seth ), and subsequently dissipates the darkness of the Nun with its two flames (the Sun and the Moon). In the cosmogony of Hermopolis it is the place where the solar god appears on the "primordial mountain", surrounded by the Nun. Be that as it may, the Hermopolitan myth is a versión of the first. And in this Ra and the ancestors are born here, on an island "of fire" (or of flames), located in the East. If we go beyond its allegorical meaning, everything indicates that this "primordial island" had volcanoes (Indonesia has them)..

We have seen how the Egyptians called the Flood, the Great Catastrophe that destroyed their original world, the nwy (Nuy), so similar to the Hebrew Noah, or the Polynesian Nuu. In my work Ecos de la Atlántida I defend the thesis that this "original homeland" of the Egyptians was in what is now Indonesia; which in turn would be the homeland of many other cultures (including Sumerian, Hebrean, not to mention Polynesian). There are several terms that suggest that this is so: for example, the Hebrew Teman or the Aztec Tamoanchan:

Habakkuk 3, 3 ("God will come from Teman, and the Holy One from Mount Paran").

Taman is an Indonesian term that literally means "garden." The garden of Eden?:

"The Lord planted a garden in Eden, to the east, and in it he placed the man he had formed" (Genesis 2, 8). 

In Egyptian the word t1 m w (temu) literally means "Humanity." Would it be related to the meaning stated above? In ancient Egyptian we find the expression i d1 n (idun), which means “fenced land”, as well as h1 d1 n (heden), indeterminate plant, with two determinatives: vegetable with three herbs (M2), or -sometimes- a seated man ( A1). (According to Yvonne Bonnamy's Hieroglyphs Dictionary.) In the texts of Edfu it is spoken of the Lord of Heden, a nonspecific term of which I have not found any documentation, except the one cited above. Thus, both Heden and idun could allude both to a garden (hence the determinative "plant"), and to a paradise (note that the Egyptian idun is a fenced land):

"Paradise" is a Persian word (pairidaeza) that refers to the parks and gardens of the kings of Persia. In essence, it would consist of a park (pairi [around]) surrounded by a wall (daeza [wall]).

And even to the “origin of Humanity”, because it is not in vain that the Egyptian term "Humanity" is also accompanied by the determinative Man (A1), Human Gender, which in Egypt is literally t1 m w (temu) , perhaps in reference to the Indonesian Teman (see above).

But moreover, the term Meru is characteristic of the Far East, where it originates from. Meru is a sacred mountain, which has given its name to numerous place names and anthroponyms in Indonesia (Merapi, Merbabu, Semang, Semarang, etc.) But it is that in Hebrew merom means "high place", and Egypt receives the nickname of To-Mera (or better, Ta Mera, because ta is "land" in Egyptian), or what is the same, the Earth of the pyramid, or the Earth of the canal; since m r (mer) is both a pyramid and a channel. Note that in Ecos de la Atlántida I indicated that Meru literally means: River (Me) of the Mountain (Ru):

As regards the Asian context, Me is "river" in Khmer (Cambodian) language, while Ru, in Tibetan (language belonging to the Chinese family) refers to the "mountain". Hence we have that Me-ru would mean "mountain river", as well as two other very old and widespread terms in the world: Ibar and Eden. See in this regard my book Los Hijos del Edén.

Egyptian mythology could owe other terms to the context of the Far East, in addition to Nwy (Nuu is the Polynesian Noah), Mer (u), Heden, Temu, etc. Note the two mythical mountains that mark the limit of the Sun's course over the horizon: Manu (West Mountain) and Bakhu (Eastern Mountain). Manu refers to a Hindu deity, son of the Sun, which would be equivalent to the Judeo-Christian Noah; it existed, in mythical times, at the time of Vishnu's Avatar as a Matsya fish, during the Flood. Bakhu (or Bakhau), the Eastern mountain in the Egyptian tradition, is homophonic with an Indonesian term. Bakhau is "mangrove" in this language, but it is also a mountain of Timor and an island in the Philippines, northeast of Borneo. Tamjung Bakhau is a place of Sumatra.

Nwy, Mer, Heden, Temu, Manu and Bakhau. Can we extend this contribution of Indonesian and Malaysian terms to Egyptian terminology? Yes, and substantially. i 3 b (iab; Iaba?) is the Egyptian term to refer to the East. And is not iab homophone with iava, the modern Java? It is every day a more accepted fact that the Egyptians "did business" with this land, exploiting the land of p w n t1 (Punt), sacred and hidden place, land of the gods, origin of spices and aromatic plants; hence, it is assimilated to â n t1 w (aantiu, anti), which means “myrrh”, and also to â n t1 and (aanty), nickname of Horus, who was born in this place; specifically in the mythical island of fire, in reference to its volcanoes (Indonesia is a volcanic land).

It is a curious fact that the root ia is repeated in the Egyptian terms that allude to the ancients, to catastrophes, or to the East: i 3 t1 (iat) is “mound”, and is a term that appears in the sacred geography of the underworld Egyptian (the Amentet, the Duat); i 3 b (iab; Iaba?) is, as we have seen, "East"; i 3 r u (iaru), "reeds", gives its name to the Field of Reeds, one of the names of the Egyptian Paradise of the Dead; i 3 k2 w (iaku), "the elders", alluding to the Ancients; i 3 d t (iadt), “torrential rain, calamity, desolation”; i â (iaa), "grave, mastaba"; and especially i â r t1 (iart), literally "residence of the gods", and i 3 h4 s, (Iachés), Horus-Min, equivalent to the Iakhé (Dionysus) of the Greeks. In this regard, in Ecos de la Atlántida I write the following::

The Greeks, who - according to the Hebrews - derive their name from Javan (Java?), and therefore could have had direct knowledge of these ancient traditions, involved Iakhos (Dionysus), in the form of a wooden statue, in the procession of the mysteries of Eleusis. Iakhos was greeted with the ritual shout called Iakche, while myrtle branches were raised. Of this ritual, Herodotus says, in the V book of his History (paragraph 65): "Demarato, on the plain of Tria, saw that from Eleusis a dust was advancing, as if it were caused by about thirty thousand men. The two were wondering, full of perplexity, who could lift the dust, when, suddenly, they heard a screaming that Diceo thought was the ritual shout that, in Yaco's honor, is sung in the mysteries."

The root ia (and io), perhaps allusive to the “East” meaning of i 3 b, appears in numerous sacred names spread throughout the world. So, in Ecos de la Atlántida I propose the following list:

- Java (perhaps from the Sanskrit "millet", or "barley"), to refer to the homonymous island of Indonesia (Javadvipa).

- Yahweh, among the Hebrews.

- Javan (among the Hebrews), or Ion (among the Greeks), to refer to the Greek eponym.

- Yavana (in Sanskrit), to refer to the Greeks.

- Jove (better known as Jupiter) among the Romans.

- Yevus (among the Canaanites), to refer to Jerusalem before David.

- Yao (among the Chinese), mythical emperor during the times of the Flood.

- Yu Di (another name of the Chinese "Jade Emperor").

- Iao (among the Gnostics), prince of the first heaven.

- Io (among Eastern Polynesians), to refer to the creator god.

- Jaungoikoa ("Lord of the High"), among the Basques.

- Havva (pronounced Java), the way Eva is pronounced in Hebrew.

- Jahu ("eminent dove"), Sumerian mother goddess.

Nwy, Mer, Heden, Temu, Manu and Bakhau, and finally iab (iaba?). Given that recent archaeological discoveries have shown that the Egyptians visited, and possibly traded with, Southeast Asia, how to rule out that they considered Indonesia and Malaysia as the "land of origin", or the "land of the gods"? his t13 nt2r (ta neter), or his t13 t2nn (ta tenen), the "primordial land"? Egyptian influence is evident among Polynesians, among which we find homonymous terms. In Ecos de la Atlántida I write the following::

Ra is Sun both in the Polynesian languages and in Egypt. Aku-Aku are the spirits in Rapa Nui; term that in akhu is egyptian; Oroi, a mythical Polynesian character, could derive from the Egyptian Horus. Note on the other hand that the inhabitants of some Pacific islands (especially in the Fiji) use head support for sleeping, as the ancient Egyptians did.

We can find an indication of this in the Egyptian word d1 w 3 w (duau), "dawn", which gave rise to the term d1 w 3 t1 (duat), with which the Egyptians alluded to the lower world, to the place of stay of the deceased, the tour of the solar boat during its nocturnal underground journey. Note that the aurora is located in the East, the starting point of the Sun. Hence the existence of the two mountains (or pillars) that mark its path: Bakhu (or Bakhau), in the East, and Manu in the West; both terms with oriental origin, as we have seen.

It is in the Book of the Dead where we can find abundant (sometimes contradictory) details of this mythical geography. Let us remember the background of this sacred text, perhaps the most important of Egyptian literature. Originating in the Pyramid Texts (third millennium BC), they became papyri and more or less established formulas in funeral rites, such as the Sarcophagus Texts or the Book of the Dead. As regards the Bakhu mountain, in spell 101 it is said: "The Bakhu mountain, where the sky rests, is in the East of the sky." Note the assimilation of Bakhu to a pillar (the place where the sky rests), which in Egyptian terminology would constitute one of the four pillars of the sky: s h3 n t1 (sekhent?). Well, this meaning (pillar) could be one of those that gave name to the d1 w 3 t1 (duat), the ultraworld, which derives from d1 w 3 w (duau), East. Thus we have t1 w 3 (tua), literally "support", sustain. Hence, perhaps, the Duat: the Eastern pillar, with expressions in other cultures (Tula, Tala, etc.). As regards Manu Mountain, the Introductory Hymn of the Book of the Dead says: "Manu Mountain welcomes you (Ra, the Sun) in peace." That is, Manu is at the point of arrival of the Sun, in the West.

Alongside this duality between East and West, there is another similar between the paradise of the dead and the underworld. The paradise of the dead is called i m n t1 t1 (imentet), Amentet, which also means "hidden, underground world." Other meanings of this mythical place are "secret, hidden" (i m n, i m n t1), "right, western" (i m n), or "West, West" (i m n t1). The i m n t1 y w (imentiu) are the inhabitants of Amentet, the dead. On the other hand, we have already seen that d1 w 3 t1 (duat), the Netherworld, derives from d1 w 3 w (duau), the East. So, are both interpretations compatible? Supossely Yes. In spell 99-II of the Book of the Dead it is literally said: “What are the two cities, magician? They are the Netherworld and the Field of Reeds.” If we understand that the Netherworld is the Duat, in the East, and the Field of Reeds is the Amentet, in the West, it is clear that the Egyptians saw compatible the existence of two "paradisiacal lands": the land of Origin, from which the Sun rises (the Duat) and the destination land, which reaches the Sun (the Amentet), located respectively in the East and in the West.

But we also know that Horus was born on the island of fire, where the "anti" (myrrh) comes from; hence, this term is used interchangeably to name Horus and myrrh, since Horus emerged from there, from the place where myrrh (and incense, and other fragrant plants) grows. This mythical place is Punt: "The mountains of Punt reveal that which was hidden ..." (spell 15). On this earth, on the horizon of the world, reside 3 h3 t1 y (ajety), literally the "inhabitants of the Horizon" during the divine era, dwellers of the distant eastern lands, also called the "gods of the horizon." It should be noted that 3 h3 t1 (ajet) also means "sun eye", or "fire, flame", which is precisely what characterizes h2 r (hor), Horus, born on the "island of fire", also known as h2r m 3h3t1 (harmaket), Horus of the  Horizon (the place of the East where the gods come from). In Spell 110 it is said: “This is Horus [the Falcon ...] He leaves and descends [on his flight] in Qenqenet, his birthplace. He does everything that is done on the Island of Fire; Don't shout there, there's nothing wrong there. ” As we see, the Island of Fire is a paradise without macula or violence.

Horus, the "double lion" (Aker), shaped the sphinx. In Ecos de la Atlántida I write:

[The Sphinx of Giza] receives its name from the Egyptian expression seseps ank (living idol), but was known among the Arabs who lived in its surroundings as Abu el Hol (father of terror), and among the Egyptians of the New Empire as Hrw m 3ht (Horus on the Horizon). The Greeks called it Harmaquis, which "represents the sun in its daily journey through the skies from the moment it leaves the mount of the ortho (Bakhau) until the moment it enters the mountain of the sunset (Manu)". That is why it is related to Temu (the setting sun) and Khepera (the rising sun). In fact, the Sphinx is the largest representative monument of this solar god (Horus), and would mean "its type and symbol." This would explain that it was used as a "pointer" aimed directly at the rising sun in the equinox.

And also:

[When] Galil Abu Abd Allah Mohammed Ben Salamat el Qodal (dated around 840 AD), ... says "when the lion's heart was at the last minute of the lion's 15 degrees", the "heart of the Lion"could refer to the Sphinx, and not to the star Regulus; and the "lion" to the constellation of Leo. If we consider that the Sphinx was called Horus on the Horizon, that Horus is a representation of the Rising Sun (Khepri), that Regulus (the heart of the astronomical lion) is in the ecliptic, and that in the spring equinox of 9000 bC. this star was located right on the horizon, in conjunction with the Sun, we must understand that at that time the Sphinx, Regulus and the Sun would be aligned. As regards the Sphinx, its heart (virtual and symbolic), which would be located in the middle of the two legs, would be aligned with Regulus and the Sun. From this point of view, Horus (the Sphinx) would be in the Horizon, since it would be united with the Sun and its "celestial alter ego," Leo. The heart of the Sphinx and that of the constellation Leo would be one.

We can find the answer to this gibberish in the Egyptian term h2 3 t1 y (haty), which literally means "heart", and which contains the particle hat, symbolized by a lion in a reclining position, similar to that of the sphinx. Heart and lion, the two terms that make up the expression "heart of the lion." Would they symbolize the Sphinx of Giza, at the time when it was facing the rising sun as it passed through Regulus, in Leo, during the vernal equinox? If so, the age of the sphinx would be at least 11,000 years.

Would the Sphinx be a memory of that time when a world, considered paradisiacal by the Egyptians, had an end; in which their ancestors, assimilated to the ancient gods, lived in t13 nt2r (ta neter), assimilated to p w n t1 ( punt), prior to their arrival at k2 m t1 (kemet), Egypt, their current abode (term derived from k2 m, black earth)? The ancients, perhaps the šms h2r (shemsu Hor), the followers of Horus, had to leave that heavenly land, inhabited by the 3 h3 t1 y (ajety), inhabitants of the Horizon (distant eastern lands of the Earth), as a result of powerful disasters and floods: the i 3 d t (iadt). There took place the famous mythical war between Horus and Set, in which the first lost his eyes, 3 h3 t1 (ajet), and Seth his testicles and his thigh, which happened to be located in the north of the celestial sphere, between the "Indefatigable stars." Seth's thigh would constitute the Big Dipper, m s h2 t1 y w (mesjestiu), which orbits “tirelessly” around the pole, located 11,000 years ago between the two legs of the constellation of Hercules. Hence the swastika symbol.

This mythical battle between Horus and the "Confederates of Seth" (Spell 189) would take place on the Bakhu Mountain, the place of origin of the gods, where they were begotten: "Will I be with the Confederates of Seth on the Bakhu Mountain?" (that is, in the East). Hence, in spell 176 it is said: "I hate the land of the East, I will not enter the place of destruction." In Spell 17 this land of the East is also mentioned: “I arrive at the island of the inhabitants of the Horizon. I leave the sacred door. What is it? It is the Field of Reeds ... And as far as that sacred door is concerned, it is the door of the Followers of Horus [šms h2r]. And he also said: it is the gate of the Nehterworld [d1 w 3 t1]. And he said: And it is the door through which my father Atum passed when he came from the eastern horizon of heaven”.

Ya he dicho que los egipcios hablan de dos ciudades míticas: Duat, en el Este, y Amentet en el Oeste; pero asimismo emplean numerosos términos que podemos encontrar en Indonesia y en Polinesia. Ello convierte la hipótesis del origen oriental de su civilización en una posibilidad más que razonable. La coincidencia entre i 3 b (iab; ¿Iaba?), Oriente, y Java, es creo, más que circunstancial.

Is such a thing possible? If so, we must accept that tradition, whether oral or written, that has persisted over time throughout the centuries and millennia. And this is highly possible. Note if not the Egyptian term r m t2 t (romantet?), "Humanity", which derives from the word r m w t (romut), "tears." The Egyptians illustrate the association between Humanity and tears with the following myth, which I quote from my book  Ecos de la Atlántida:

Letter XIX (The Sun) [of the Tarot] is inspired by the Egyptian myth: here a bright sun rains thirteen drops of water on two twin boys (a boy and a girl). Undoubtedly, this refers to the Egyptian myth of the creation of man, from the tears of the Sun (Atum, Ra or Horus).

Gypsies (derived from the place name Egypt) are known as "Roma" This term, far from coming from Latin, derives from the Egyptian. Gypsies are simply the "men", of the Egyptian term r m t2 (romt?). It was they who transmitted part of the Egyptian knowledge through the deck of cards, the famous Tarot, of unknown origin. And as we have seen, in the arcane XIX the Egyptian myth of the creation of man is hidden, which explains the association between the terms "tear" and "Humanity" (see above).

But not only the "Roma" (or gypsies) transmitted part of the tradition. In the Book of the Dead there are numerous allusions to initiation and initiatory silence. For example, "I have been initiated ... I have not repeated what I was told" (Spell 114). The ritual passwords of Spell 125 are very similar to those found in some Masonic rites (especially, in the third grade). For example: “Who are you - they told me - what is your name? I am the bottom of the papyrus plant: "The one in the moringa tree" is my name. " Compare: “Is it you, dear brother? Acacia is known to me, dear brother. ” By the way, the moringa tree originates in Southeast Asia.

These rituals would take place in places like the Giza pyramids, which in the Book of the Dead do not appear as graves, but as centers of initiation. Hence we find the following passage from Spell 144: "I was born in Rosetau, and the power of the Lord of the horizon was given to me" (I was initiated in Rosetau). Again, in Spell 118, the formula "I was born in Rosetau" is pronounced, but it is added: "I received praises in Rosetau when I led Osiris to the Mounds of Osiris. I am unique, having led them to the mounds of Osiris.” Rosetau alludes to both the Netherworld and a specific place: the Memphite necropolis, that is, the Giza plateau. Thus, we must understand that the "Osiris mounds" are the pyramids of Giza. They are places of initiation, not graves. 

EGYPTIAN ALPHABET:

3 i y â w b p f m n r h1 h2 h3 h4 s š k1 k2 g t1 t2 d1 d2

PRONUNCIATION:

3: a

â: a long

w: u

h1: h aspirate

h2: h aspirate

h3: Spanish “j”

h4: German “ich”

š: ch

k1: q

k2: k

t1: t dental

t2: t(ch)e

d1: d

d2: dj

SMALL VOCABULARY (and page number in the dictionary). In Spanish:

3 h3 t1 (ajet): ojo solar, amuleto udjat (ojo) 16

3 h3 t1 (ajet): fuego, llama 16

3 h3 t1 (ajet): tierra arable, campo 16

3 h3 t1 (ajet): estación de la inundación 16

3 h3 t1 y (ajety): habitantes del horizonte durante la época divina; habitantes de las lejanas tierra orientales de la tierra; los dioses del horizonte; los decanos 17

3 s t1 (Aset): Isis 18

i 3 t1 (iat): montículo, tierra 23

i 3 b (iab; ¿Iaba?): Este, Oriente 25

i 3 b t1 (iabat): Este, Oriente 25

i 3 r u (iaru): juncos (ver más abajo sh3t1 i3ru: campos de juncos) 27

i 3 h4 s (iachés, Iahés): Horus-Min (Dionisio en su versión griega) 27

i 3 k2 w (iaku): loa Ancianos 28

i 3 d t (iadt): lluvia torrencial, calamidad, desolación 29

i â (iaa): tumba, mastaba 32

i â r t1 (iart): residencia de los dioses 33

i â h2 (iaah): Luna 33

i m n (imen): secreto, escondido 56

i m n (imen): derecha, occidental 57

i m n t1 (imenti): secreto 56

i m n t1 (imenti): Oeste, Occidente 57

i m n t1 t1 (imentet): escondido, mundo subterráneo 56

i m n t1 t1 (imentet): Amentet, paraíso de los muertos, Occidente 57

i m n t1 y w (imentiu): los occidentales, los muertos 57

i m n (imon): Amón 56

i n p w (inpu): Anubis 63

i t1 m: (itum): Atum 84

i t1 n (itun): Atón, disco solar 84

i d1 n (idun): terreno vallado 89

â n t1 w (aantiu, anti): mirra 112

â n t1 y (aanty): sobrenombre de Horus, pues supestamente procedía del lugar de la mirra 112

w3d2 wr (uadj ur): el Gran Verde, el Océano 138

w s i r (usir): Osiris 167

b n b n (benben): piedra que evoca la tierra primordial, y la petrificación del primer rayo de sol 200

p w n t1 (punt): Punt, lugar sagrado y escondido, origen de las especias 215

m 3 n w (manu): Manu, montaña de Occidente 252

m w (mu): agua 260

m r (mer): pirámide 272

m r (mer): canal, lago artificial 272

m r w (meru): nombre de persona 274

m h2 t1 y w (mejestiu): habitantes del Norte 280

m s h2 t1 y w (mesjestiu): constelación de la Osa Mayor 287

n i w (niu): Nun, el Océano primordial 308

n n w (nunu?): Nun, el Océano primordial, en el confín del mundo 328

n t2 r (neter): dios, esencia divina 347

r â (raa): el Sol 359

râ h2r 3 h3t1y (Raa Horakhty): Horus del Horizonte 360

r m w t (romut): lágrimas 365

r m t2 (romt ?): hombre, hombres 366

r m t2 t (romantet ?): Humanidad 367

h1 d1 n (heden): planta indeterminada, con dos determinativos: mata con tres hierbas (M3), o bien un hombre sentado (A1). ¿Acaso Edén? (jardín del Edén) 392

h2 3 t1 y (haty): corazón (con el signo del frontal de un león) 398

h2 r (hor): Horus 423

h2r m 3h3t1 (harmaket): Harmakhis, Horus en el Horizonte 424

h2r ib (horib): en medio, en el corazón de 428

s t1 (set): trono (ver 3 s t1, Aset: Isis) 503

s 3 h2 (Sah): Orión 514

sh3t1 i3ru (sekhet iaru): campos de juncos (en Amentet) 574

sh3t1 h2p t1 (sekhet hotep): campos de las ofrendas (en Amentet) 574

s h3 n t1 (sekhent ?): pilar, los cuatro pilares del cielo 579

šms h2r (shemsu Hor): seguidores de Horus 636

k2 m (kem): negro 679

k2 m t1 (kemet): Egipto 679

g w (gu): toro de cuernos largos 686

t1 3 (ta): tierra 699

t13 nt2r (ta neter): tierra de los dioses, nombre del país de Punt (p w n t1) 700

t13 t2nn (ta tenen): Tatunen, tierra primordial, lugar subterráneo 701

t1 w 3 (tua): sostener, apoyar 705

t1 m w (temu): Humanidad 715

d1 w 3 w (duau): aurora, mañana, alba 741

d1w3w nt2r (duau neter): divinidad de la mañana, planeta Venus 741

d1 w 3 t1 (duat): Duat, el mundo inferior, lugar de estancia de los difuntos, recorrido por el Sol durante su periplo subterráneo nocturno 742

d2 h2 w t y (djkhuty): Thot 772

 

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